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Jazz Fusion

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Jazz Fusion


Jazz fusion is a musical fusion genre that developed from mixing funk and R&B rhythms and the amplification and electronic effects of rock, complex time signatures derived from non-Western music and extended, typically instrumental compositions with a jazz approach to lengthy group improvisations, often using wind and brass and displaying a high level of instrumental technique. The term "jazz rock" is often used as a synonym for "jazz fusion" as well as for music performed by late 1960s and 1970s-era rock bands that added jazz elements to their music. Some progressive rock is also labelled "fusion". - Text from: Wikipedia-Jazz Fusion

After a decade of popularity during the 1970s, fusion expanded its improvisatory and experimental approaches through the 1980s and 1990s. Fusion albums, even those that are made by the same group or artist, may include a variety of styles. Rather than being a codified musical style, fusion can be viewed as a musical tradition or approach. - Text from: Wikipedia-Jazz Fusion


Allmusic Guide states that "until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate".  While in the USA modern jazz and electric R&B may have represented opposite poles of blues-based Afro-American music, however, the British pop music of the beat boom developed out of the skiffle and R&B championed by well-known jazzmen such as Chris Barber. Many UK pop musicians were steeped in jazz, though the word "rock" itself was barely used before the late 1960s except to refer to 1950s rock and roll. The prominent fusion guitarist John McLaughlin, for example, had played what Allmusic describes as a "blend of jazz and American R&B" with Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames as early as 1962 and continued with The Graham Bond Organisation (with Jack Bruce and Ginger Baker) whose style Allmusic calls "rhythm & blues with a strong jazzy flavor".  Bond himself had begun playing straight jazz with Don Rendell while Manfred Mann, who recorded a Cannonball Adderley tune on their first album, when joined by Bruce turned out the 1966 EP record Instrumental Asylum, which undoubtedly fused jazz and rock. - Text from: Wikipedia-Jazz Fusion

These developments, though, made little overt impression in the USA. Hence music critic Piero Scaruffi argues that "credit for "inventing" jazz-rock goes to Indiana-born jazz vibraphonist Gary Burton, who "began to experiment with rock rhythms on The Time Machine (1966)". Burton recorded what Scaruffi calls "the first jazz-rock album, Duster" in 1967, with guitarist Larry Coryell. Scaruffi argues that Coryell is "another candidate to inventor of jazz-rock", in that the Texas-born guitarist released the jazz-rock recording Out of Sight And Sound in 1966. - Text from: Wikipedia-Jazz Fusion

Trumpeter and composer Miles Davis had a major influence on the development of jazz fusion with his 1968 album entitled Miles in the Sky. It is the first of Davis' albums to incorporate electric instruments, with Herbie Hancock and Ron Carter playing electric piano and bass guitar, respectively. Davis furthered his explorations into the use of electric instruments on another 1968 album, Filles de Kilimanjaro, with pianist Chick Corea and bassist Dave Holland. - Text from: Wikipedia-Jazz Fusion

In 1969 Davis fully introduced the electric instrument approach to jazz with In a Silent Way, which can be considered Davis's first fusion album. Composed of two side-long suites edited heavily by producer Teo Macero, this quiet, static album would be equally influential upon the development of ambient music. It featured contributions from musicians who would all go on to spread the fusion evangel with their own groups in the 1970s: Shorter, Hancock, Corea, pianist Josef Zawinul, John McLaughlin, Holland, and Williams. Williams quit Davis to form the group The Tony Williams Lifetime with McLaughlin and organist Larry Young. Their debut record of that year Emergency! is also cited as one of the early acclaimed fusion albums. - Text from: Wikipedia-Jazz Fusion

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